The general suggestions are these…
Plant vegetables that bear crops over the ground in the waxing moon; that is, from new moon to full moon.
Plant Vegetables that yield edible roots in the waning moon; that is, from full moon to dark moon.
Here is a calender for 2015 based on biodynamic moon time planting. Scroll down several pages for individual months and details about when to sow, transplant and harvest.
Vegetables also have astrological associations ( a lot of this is based on the work of Rudolf Steiner and his associates in Biodynamic research).
For anyone who wants to read his lectures on gardening they are archived here as The Agricultural Course.
(His vast amount of lectures on other topics are here.)
At the new moon, the lunar gravity pulls water up, and causes the seeds to swell and burst. This factor, coupled with the increasing moonlight creates balanced root and leaf growth. This is the best time for planting above ground annual crops that produce their seeds outside the fruit. Examples are lettuce, spinach, celery, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, and grain crops. Cucumbers like this phase also, even though they are an exception to that rule.
In the second quarter the gravitational pull is less, but the moonlight is strong, creating strong leaf growth. It is generally a good time for planting, especially two days before the full moon. The types of crops that prefer the second quarter are annuals that produce above ground, but their seeds form inside the fruit, such as beans, melons, peas, peppers, squash, and tomatoes. Mow lawns in the first or second quarter to increase growth.
After the full moon, as the moon wanes, the energy is drawing down. The gravitation pull is high, creating more moisture in the soil, but the moonlight is decreasing, putting energy into the roots. This is a favorable time for planting root crops, including beets, carrots, onions, potatoes, and peanuts. It is also good for perennials, biennials, bulbs and transplanting because of theactive root growth. Pruning is best done in the third quarter, in the sign of Scorpio.
In the fourth quarter there is decreased gravitational pull and moonlight, and it is considered a resting period. This is also the best time to cultivate, harvest, transplant and prune. Mow lawns in the third or fourth quarter to retard growth.
Aries- A fire sign. Barren and dry. Harvest root and fruit for storage. Cultivate, destroy weeds and pests.
Taurus- An earth sign. Productive and moist. Second best for planting and transplanting. Good for root crops and potatoes, especially when hardiness is important. Also a good sign for leafy vegetables such as lettuce, cabbage and spinach.
Gemini- An air sign. Barren and dry.Harvest root and fruit for storage. Cultivate, destroy weeds and pests. Melon seeds respond well in this sign.
Cancer- A water sign. Very fruitful and moist. The best sign for all planting and transplanting. Also good for grafting, and irrigation.
Leo- A fire sign. Very barren and dry.Cultivate, harvest root and fruit for storage. An excellent time to destroy weeds and pests in the fourth quarter.
Virgo- An earth sign. Barren and moist.Some flowers and vines are favored by it. Cultivate and destroy weeds and pests.
Libra- An air signs. Semi-fruitful and moist. Best sign for planting beautiful and fragrant flowers, vines and herbs. Good for planting pulpy stems like kohlrabi, and root crops.
Scorpio- A water sign. Very fruitful and moist. Best planting sign for sturdy plants and vines. Tomatoes like to be transplanted in Scorpio, and it is a good sign for corn and squash. Graft or prune in the third and fourth quarter to retard growth and promote better fruit. A good sign for irrigation and transplanting.
Sagittarius- A fire sign. Barren and dry.Harvest roots and onions for storage, and plant onion sets and fruit trees. A good sign in which to cultivate the soil.
Capricorn- An earth sign. Productive and dry. Good for planting potatoes and other root crops, and for encouraging strong hardy growth. Good for grafting, and pruning to promote healing, and applying organic fertilizer.
Aquarius- An air sign. Barren and dry.Harvest root and fruit for storage. Cultivate, destroy weeds and pests. Good for planting onion sets.
Pisces- A water sign. Very productive and moist. Second best sign for planting and transplanting. Especially good for root growth and irrigation.